Ultrasonic Technology In The Non-Destructive Testing Process During Ultrasonic Examination Of Portable Cylinders

Travis Jolliff

Ultrasonic Evaluation of portable cylinders uses ultrasonic waves as a non-destructive process that uses bursts of ultrasonic energy into the cylinder to detect flaws. A defect such as an internal or external crack or thinning wall would be detected by reflecting the sound wave to the detector and displaying what the flaw is on the display. High-speed Ultrasonic (UT) Systems enable a full volumetric examination of materials and are designed to detect surface, subsurface, internal and dimensional flaws.

Ultrasonic Evaluation of portable cylinders utilizes high-frequency sound waves that are transmitted throughout the material being tested in order to conduct a thorough inspection.

  • Ultrasonic inspection can be used to detect surface flaws, such as cracks, seams, and internal flaws such as voids or inclusions of foreign material. It’s also used to measure wall thickness in tubes and diameters of bars.
  • An ultrasonic wave is a mechanical vibration or pressure wave similar to audible sound, but with a much higher vibration frequency. For NDT purposes, the range is usually from 1MHz to 30MHz.
  • Depending on the test requirements, these waves can be highly directional and focused on a small spot or thin line, or limited to a very short duration.

Two methods of UT are used for flaw detection – Shear and Compression Wave.

  • Shear method uses an angled beam that is usually 45° . This enables surface and subsurface testing. Surface cracks, seams and near surface inclusions can be detected with the shear method. Shear method can overlap the normal incidence method inspection and result in a 100% volumetric test of the bar.
  • Compression is also known as normal incidence. This is the primary internal inspection for bar testing. The transducer is set to exactly enter the bar surface perpendicular to the surface. This inspection method is limited to the entire bar volume except approximately a 3mm thick outer shell.

Ultrasonic NDT testing methods will indicate material defects such as longitudinal and transverse cracks, inclusions and other flaws, as well as ID/OD dimensions and dimensional changes such as thickness and ovality.

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